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The Radio Amateur's Hand Book

Автор: A. FREDERICK (ARCHIE FREDERICK), 1869- COLLINS
Раздел: English
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The Radio Amateur's Hand Book

Author: A. Frederick Collins

Release Date: November, 2004 [EBook #6934]
[This file was first posted on February 13, 2003]

Edition: 10

Language: English

Character set encoding: ASCII

*** START OF THE PROJECT www.Gramotey.com EBOOK, THE RADIO AMATEUR'S HAND BOOK ***




Produced by Alan Millar and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team.



[Transcriber's Note: The illustrations have been included with
another version of this work. The image files have been named
in a straightforward manner that corresponds to the numbering in
the text; thus, Illustration 7 is included as file "fig007.png",
while Illustration (A) 22 is included as file "fig022a.png".]






THE RADIO AMATEUR'S HAND BOOK

[Illustration: A. Frederick Collins, Inventor of the Wireless
Telephone, 1899. Awarded Gold Medal for same, Alaska Yukon Pacific
Exposition, 1909.]




THE RADIO AMATEUR'S HAND BOOK

A Complete, Authentic and Informative Work on Wireless Telegraphy and
Telephony

BY

A. FREDERICK COLLINS

Inventor of the Wireless Telephone 1899; Historian of Wireless
1901-1910; Author of "Wireless Telegraphy" 1905





TO

WILLIAM MARCONI

INVENTOR OF THE WIRELESS TELEGRAPH




INTRODUCTION


Before delving into the mysteries of receiving and sending messages
without wires, a word as to the history of the art and its present day
applications may be of service. While popular interest in the subject
has gone forward by leaps and bounds within the last two or three
years, it has been a matter of scientific experiment for more than a
quarter of a century.

The wireless telegraph was invented by William Marconi, at Bologna,
Italy, in 1896, and in his first experiments he sent dot and dash
signals to a distance of 200 or 300 feet. The wireless telephone was
invented by the author of this book at Narberth, Penn., in 1899, and
in his first experiments the human voice was transmitted to a distance
of three blocks.

The first vital experiments that led up to the invention of the
wireless telegraph were made by Heinrich Hertz, of Germany, in 1888
when he showed that the spark of an induction coil set up electric
oscillations in an open circuit, and that the energy of these waves
was, in turn, sent out in the form of electric waves. He also showed
how they could be received at a distance by means of a ring detector,
which he called a resonator

In 1890, Edward Branly, of France, showed that metal filings in a tube
cohered when electric waves acted on them, and this device he termed a
radio conductor ; this was improved upon by Sir Oliver Lodge, who
called it a coherer. In 1895, Alexander Popoff, of Russia, constructed
a receiving set for the study of atmospheric electricity, and this
arrangement was the earliest on record of the use of a detector
connected with an aerial and the earth.

Marconi was the first to connect an aerial to one side of a spark gap
and a ground to the other side of it. He used an induction coil to
energize the spark gap, and a telegraph key in the primary circuit to
break up the current into signals. Adding a Morse register, which
printed the dot and dash messages on a tape, to the Popoff receptor he
produced the first system for sending and receiving wireless telegraph
messages.

[Illustration: Collins' Wireless Telephone Exhibited at the Madison
Square Garden, October 1908.]

After Marconi had shown the world how to telegraph without connecting
wires it would seem, on first thought, to be an easy matter to
telephone without wires, but not so, for the electric spark sets up
damped and periodic oscillations and these cannot be used for
transmitting speech. Instead, the oscillations must be of constant
amplitude and continuous. That a direct current arc light transforms a
part of its energy into electric oscillations was shown by Firth and
Rogers, of England, in 1893.

The author was the first




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